Postgraduate student of Department of international relations Chernivtsi National Yuriy Fedkovych University
UDС 327(73:55) «196/197»
The foreign policy approaches and methods of establishing bilateral relations between Washington and Tehran and the actual implementation of the US “containment” policy towards Iran are analyzed in the article. The author argues that the Middle Eastern vector of US foreign policy was formed according to the three security challenges in the region and Iranian involvement in them: the Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988, the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and the kidnapping of American hostages in Beirut 1982.
Background and progress of Iran-Iraq war were the result of striking contradictions between regional and world leaders in the Middle East. In fact, since the early 1980s. this military confrontation substantially affect the US relationship with IRI. In this context, the key point was the blatant US support of the Iraq and its government.
Reagan administration continued the foreign policy of J. Carter and considered the Soviet Union as the greatest threat to the Gulf region, including through military intervention in Afghanistan and its close ties with radical countries like Libya and Syria. In the Middle East, the White House has focused its efforts on negotiations on a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt in 1978. Before the revolution in 1979, Iran was crucial to US interests in the Middle East. First, as a frontline state with an extended 2000-km border with the Soviet Union, as well as a springboard for American intelligence. In addition, Iran was one of the few Muslim countries to recognize Israel, and exported oil to it. However, the after the Islamic revolution, Iran became the periphery to US priorities in the region.
Foreign policy, US foreign strategy, Iran, the Iran-Iraq war, “containment” policy, Reagan administration, strategy of changing “arms-for-hostages”.
Download the аrticle
- Khudolii A. (2009) Vplyv politychnykh stereotypiv na zovnishnopolitychnyi kurs administratsii Reihana. Naukovyi visnyk Chernivetskoho universytetu. Issue 486/487: Istoriia. Politychni nauky. Mizhnarodni vidnosyny. [in Ukrainian].
- Jurchenko B.H. (2009) Politika sankcij Soedinennyh Shtatov Ameriki v otnoshenii Islamskoj Respubliki Iran. Vestnik Tjumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 7. [in Ukrainian].
- Ansari A. (2006) Confronting Iran: The Failure of American Foreign Policy and the Next Great Crisis in the Middle East. New York. [in English].
- Bell R. (1990) Expansion of American Persian Gulf Policy by Three Presidents. Marine Corps University Command and Staff College. [Online]. Avaliable from: http://www.globalsecurity.org/. [in English].
- Byman D. (2005, 8 September) Iran, terrorism, and weapons of mass destruction. Prepared remarks for the hearing entitled «WMD terrorism and proliferant states» before the Subcommittee on the prevention of nuclear and biological attacks of the homeland Security Committee. p. 3. [in English].
- Carpenter T. (2007) The Iraq War and Iranian Power. Survival: Global Politics and Strategy. 49(4). p. 68. [in English].
- Carter R. (2010) Contemporary Cases in U.S. Foreign Policy: From Terrorism to Trade. CQ Press College. p. 110. [in English].
- Executive Order 12613 – Prohibiting Imports from Iran, October 30, 1987. [Online]. Avaliable from: http://www.archives.gov/ [in English].
- Healy G. (2014, 24 July) Conservatives Would Do Well to Resurrect Ronald Reagan’s Middle East Policy. DC Examiner. [Online]. Avaliable from: http://www.cato.org/ [in English].
- Richard N. Haass, Meghan L. O’Sullivan ed. (2000) Honey and Vinegar: Incentives, Sanctions, and Foreign Policy. Brookings Institution Press. [in English].
- Hunter R. (1988) United States Policy in the Middle East. Current History. 87. [in English].
- Inouye D., Hamilton L.H. (1987) Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair: with Supplemental, Minority, and Additional Views. Washington: Government Printing Office. [in English].
- Kavoossi М. (1988) The Postrevolutionary Iranian Economy: Opportunities and Constraints. Business Economics. Vol. 23. No. 2. [in English].
- Kravet D. (1989) Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States. The American journal of international law. Vol. 83. No. 1. [in English].
- McCormick J., Smith S.S. (1987) The Iran Arms Sale and the Intelligence Oversight Act of 1980. PS: Political Science and Politics. Vol. 20. No. 1. [in English].
- Peterson J. E. (1986) Defending Arabia. New York: St. Martin’s Press Inc. [in English].
- Resolution 616 (1988) Adopted by the Security Council at its 2818th meeting on 20 July 1988. [Online]. Avaliable from: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/ [in English].
- Wright R. Ed. (2010) The Iran primer: power, politics, and U.S. policy. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press. p. 134. [in English].
- Thrall N. (2007, 5 June) How the Reagan Administration Taught Iran the Wrong Lessons. Middle East Review of International Affairs. Gloria Center. Vol. 11. [Online]. Avaliable from: http://meria.idc.ac.il/. [in English].
- Tyler P. (2002, 18 August) Officers Say U.S. Aided Iraq in War Despite Use of Gas. The New York Times. [Online]. Avaliable from: http://www.intellectualtakeout.org/ [in English].
- (1987) United States policy toward Iran: hearings before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One hundredth Congress, first session, January 14, 16, 23, and 27, 1987. Washington. [in English].