Ph.D. (Political Sciences), Associate Professor,
Petro Mohyla Black Sea National University,
Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of environmental diplomacy of the European Union in Asia and Africa. The EU is the leader in the development of international environmental activities. The uniqueness of the EU, compared to other countries in the world, is that its environmental diplomacy is implemented in most regions of the world, including Asia and Africa. All this determines the relevance of the study of Asian and African areas of EU environmental diplomacy. The Asian vector of EU environmental diplomacy is implemented through various programs, projects, through the Asia-Europe Meeting platform (informal process of dialogue and cooperation between Asia and Europe, launched in 1996) and the EU-CA platform on environment and water cooperation (High-level conferences in Rome in 2009 as a basis for EU-CA cooperation in the field of water and environment based on the EU Strategy for Central Asia agreed with the CA countries). The African continent is particularly vulnerable to climate change and environmental degradation. Food security, sustainable water supply and extreme weather events (floods, arid deserts) are key issues that require joint efforts by Africa and the EU. The article reveals the EU-funded Regeneration of Africa program, which began in 2017. The program aims to improve livelihoods, strengthen food security and strengthen resilience to climate change, while restoring degraded ecosystem services in eight countries. The EU pursues its external environmental goals in Africa, namely, high-level political dialogue in the form of a Joint Africa-EU Strategy, capacity building through development projects and programs, and manipulating utility calculations in the Economic Partnership Agreement. The environment and climate change have become more important in EU-Africa relations over the last decade. However, the EU’s attempts to pursue its foreign policy through high-level political dialogue are hampered by many of the same weaknesses that undermine its broader relations with Africa.
Keywords: European Union, environmental diplomacy, environmental policy, Asia, Africa, Central Asia.
- Boholiubova, N.M., & Nykolaeva, Yu.V. (2014). Fenomen «Zelenoi dyplomatyy»: Mezhdunarodnыi opыt Uchenыe zapysky Rossyiskoho hosudarstvennoho hydrometeorolohycheskoho unyversyteta. 36, 189–198.
- Muratbekova, (2021). Novaya diplomatiya evropejskogo soyuza v Central’noj Azii. Eurasian research institute. Retrieved from: http://eulaw.edu.ru/documents/legislation/okr_sreda/vozd_gos_proekt.htm
- https://www.tandfonline.com/author/Biedenkopf%2C+KatjaBiedenkopf, K. (2019). EU Delegations in European Union climate diplomacy: the role of links to Brussels, individuals and country contexts. Journal of European Integration, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07036337.2018.1551389.
- Bilateral and regional cooperation. European Commission: official website. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/relations_africa_en.htm.
- Alexander, C., Ivleva, D., Pohl. B., Rüttinger. L., & Schaller, S. (2017). Climate Diplomacy – Foreign Policy Responses to Climate Change. Berlin: adelphi. Retrieved from: https://www.adelphi.de/en/publication/climate-diplomacy-foreign-policy-responses-climate-change
- EU Sierra Leone trains journalists on climate change and environmental reporting. European Union External Action: official website. Retrieved from: https://eeas.europa.eu/topics/climate-environment-energy/94095/eu-sierra-leone-trains-journalists-climate-change-and-environmental-reporting_en
- Islam, S. (2020). The EU Green Deal can go global – but ‘climate diplomacy’ won’t be easy. Retrieved from: https://www.friendsofeurope.org/insights/the-eu-green-deal-can-go-global-but-climate-diplomacy-wont-be-easy/
- Policy briefs of the “german water initiative for Central Asia. Regional Research Network «Central Asian Water». Retrieved from: https://www.cawa-project.net/news-detail/news/policy-briefs-of-the-german-water-initiative-for-central-asia/
- Regional dialogue and cooperation – ASEM. European Commission: official website. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/relations_asem_en.htm
- Restoring degraded land in Kenya with Regreening Africa. European Union External Action: official website. Retrieved from: https://eeas.europa.eu/topics/environment-and-climate-change/92060/restoring-degraded-land-kenya-regreening-africa_en
- Stratégie 2011. Coopération et développement: une vision française. Document cadre. Brochure. (2011). Paris: MAE.
- The EU shares its experience on water quality management with Central Asia. European Union External Action: official website. Retrieved from: https://eeas.europa.eu/topics/water-diplomacy/64065/eu-shares-its-experience-water-quality-management-central-asia_en
- The European Union and Central Asia: the results of joint project on water cooperation. European Union External Action: official website. Retrieved from: https://eeas.europa.eu/topics/water-diplomacy/35925/european-union-and-central-asia-results-joint-project-water-cooperation_en