Dr. habil (History), Professor
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine
Abstract. The paper studies the ways in which international situation in June-July 1914 was covered by «Kiyevlianin», a daily influential newspaper published in Kyiv, then Russian Empire. This research focuses on the main international themes covered by the «Kiyevlianin» newspaper after assassination of Habsburg hair Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and until the Austro-Hungarian Note to Serbia was reported. The major focus of the study is international situation in the Balkans, especially the conflict between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, and Russian Empire’s Balkan policy. The author considers those days’ newspapers a valuable source for a historical research as they provided information while the events were ongoing, and their direction and outcomes were not known yet. The understanding of those days’ events by contemporaries may differ from later academic interpretations. For this reason, the study of these newspapers deepens our understanding of international situation before the Great War.
The research has revealed that the Austro-Serbian conflict was only one of the numerous conflicts in the Balkans. The international situation on the peninsula dramatically changed after the Balkan wars of 1912-1913 in favor of Serbia, and the potential of further conflicts essentially increased. The reporters understood that any minor changes in the situation could trigger a new Balkan war. The major driving forces behind the Austro-Serbian conflict were “Great Serbian” idea, Serbia’s positioning as the “Piedmont” of Southern Slavs (at the expense of Austro-Hungary), and Russia’s Balkan policy. The latter was represented by the Russian envoy to Belgrade Nikolay Gartvig. According to him, backing of Serbia was caused by Russia’s geopolitical interests of anti-Austrian character. Russia’s backing in July 1914 prompted the Serbian regent Alexander not to comply with the Austro-Hungarian Note and to escalate the conflict. Thus, Russia’s pro-Serbian and anti-Austrian policy was the major factor which caused the war.
Key words: July crisis of 1914, the Balkans, Austro-Hungary, Serbia, Austro-Serbian conflict, Russian policy in the Balkans.
Download full text
- (1914, July 12-13). Avstriyskaya nota Serbii. Kiyevlianin, 190–191, 5 А.
- (1914, June 28). Avstro-serbskay vrazda. Kiyevlianin, 176, 3 А.
- (1914, July 11). Avstro-serbskiy conflict. Kiyevlianin, 189, 3 А.
- (1914, July 7). Balkanskiye dela. Kiyevlianin, 185, А 4.
- Gorodnia N. (2005). Obstavyny rozviazannia Pershoyi svitovoyi viyny ochyma suchasnykiv. Visnyk Kyivskogo natsionalnogo universytety imeni Tarasa Shevchenka. Istoriya, 77–79, 4–7.
- (1914, July 1). Diplomaticheskiye shagi v Belgrade. Kiyevlianin, 179, 4А.
- (1914, June 23). Inostrannoye obozreniye. Kiyevlianin, 171, 1А, 2А.
- (1914, June 16). Inostrannoye obozreniye. Kiyevlianin, 164, 1А, 2А.
- (1914, June 29). Informatsia iz Vieny. Kiyevlianin, 177, 4А.
- (1914, July 4). K koncine Gartviga. Kiyevlianin, 182, 2А.
- (1914, June 20). K konchine ertsgertsoga Frantsa-Ferdinanda. Kiyevlianin, 168, 2А, 3А.
- (1914, July 1). K konchine russkogo poslannika Gartviga. Kiyevlianin, 179, 4А.
- (1914, June 18). K ubiystvy ertsgertsoga Frantsa-Ferdinanda. Kiyevlianin, 166, 4А, 5А.
- (1914, June 22). K ubiystvy ertsgertsoga Frantsa-Ferdinanda. Kiyevlianin, 170, 3А.
- Kalchenko Т. Kiyevlianin. Khronos. http://www.hrono.ru/organ/rossiya/kievlyanin.html
- (1914, June 24). Katastrofa v Sarayevo. Kiyevlianin, 172, 3А.
- (1914, June 29). Konchina v Belgrade russkogo poslannika N.G. Gartviga. Kiyevlianin, 177, 5А.
- (1914, June 27). Kiyevlianin, 175, 3А.
- (1914, June 17). Natsionalisty ili anarhisty? Kiyevlianin, 165, 2А.
- (1914, July 9). Otgoloski zlodeyaniya v Sarayevo. Kiyevlianin, 187, 2А.
- (1914, July 7). Pamiatnik Gartvigy v Kiyevlianin, 185, 4А.
- (1914, July 12). Peterburgskoye telegrafnoye agentstvo soobshchajet… Kiyevlianin, 190, 1А, 2А.
- (1914, July 4). Pogrebeniye Gartviga. Kiyevlianin, 182, 3А.
- (1914, June 28). Pogrebeniye ertsgertsoga. Kiyevlianin, 176, 3А.
- (1914, June 28). Poyezdka kniazia Gogenloe. Kiyevlianin, 176, 2А.
- (1914, June 17). Pokusheniye v Sarayevo s politicheskoy tochki Kiyevlianin. №165, 2A.
- (1914, June 27). Polozeniye del v Kiyevlianin, 175, 3А.
- (1914, June 28). Posledstviya pokusheniy v Sarayevo. Kiyevlianin, 176, 3А.
- (1914, June 24). Predstoyashcheye objedineniye Serbii i Kiyevlianin, 172, 3А.
- Puze F. (1914, June 18). K tragedii v Sarayevo. Kiyevlianin, 166, 2А.
- (1914, July 8). Puteshestviye presidenta Puankare v Rossiyu. Kiyevlianin, 186, 3А.
- Savenko A. (1914, June 19). Drama serbskogo Kiyevlianin, 167, 2А, 3А.
- Savenko A. (1914, July 13). Mir i natsionalnyje interesy. Kiyevlianin, 191, 2А.
- Savenko A. (1914, July 3). Novaya era v nashey balkanskoy politikie (pamiati N. G. Gartviga). Kiyevlianin, 181, 1А.
- (1914, July 7). Sledstviye po dely ob ubiystvie Kiyevlianin, 185, 2А.
- (1914, June 22). Sliyanije Serbii i Chernogoriji. Kiyevlianin, 170, 3А.
- (1914, June 29). Telegrammy. Ot nashih korrespondentov i Peterburgskogo telegrafnogo Kiyevlianin, 177, 6А.
- (1914, July 7). Trevoznoye polozeniye na Kiyevlianin, 185, 2А.
- Gumz, Jonathan (2014). The Habsburg Empire, Serbia, and 1914: The Significance of a Sideshow. In Günter Bischof, Ferdinand Karlhofer and Samuel R. Williamson (Eds.), 1914. Austria-Hungary, the Origins, and the First Year of World War I (pp. 127–144). University of New Orleans http://www.jstor.com/stable/j.ctt1n2txft.9
- Kronenbitter, Günther (2014). Amnesia and Remembrance – Count Berchtold on 1914. In Günter Bischof, Ferdinand Karlhofer and Samuel R. Williamson (Eds.), 1914. Austria-Hungary, the Origins, and the First Year of World War I (pp. 77–92). University of New Orleans http://www.jstor.com/stable/j.ctt1n2txft.7
- MacMillan, Margaret (2013). The War that Ended Peace; The Road to War. New York: Random House.
- Neiberg, Michael (2014). The Crisis of 1914 and the Road to War. Ler História, 66, 11–27. https://journals.openedition.org/lerhistoria/656
- Snyder, Jack (2014). Better Now Than Later: The Paradox of 1914 as Everyone’s Favored Year for War. International Security, 39 (1), 71–94. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24480545
- Williamson, Samuel R. Austria and the Origins of the Great War: A Selective Historiographical Survey. In Günter Bischof, Ferdinand Karlhofer and Samuel R. Williamson (Eds.), 1914. Austria-Hungary, the Origins, and the First Year of World War I (pp. 21–33). University of New Orleans http://www.jstor.com/stable/j.ctt1n2txft.4