Victor Pohromskyi

Ph.D (History)

Petro Mohyla Black Sea National University, Mykolaiv, Ukraine


Abstract. The end of the First World War was a consequence of a whole range of significant problems in the countries of Eastern Europe. These include the general poverty of the population, the decline of the rural industry and industrial production, the general political crisis that increased the popularity of radical communist movements, the change of geopolitical formation in Europe. The main factor that led to the destruction of the imperialist system was World War the first. On the ruins of empires, new independent countries are emerging, including the restored Republic of Poland or the Second Commonwealth. The whole list of problems that often reinforced each other was extremely difficult to overcome solely with the country inner capabilities and reserves. In fact, the period of the 20-30s of the twentieth century becomes the era of the expansion of the international philanthropic organizations activities, among which an important role was taken by American subsidiary organizations. These include the American Relief Administration (ARA), the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) and some religious organizations such as the American Mennonites and others. Quite often these organizations were united, sometimes acting separately, or transferring the relay activity from one to another. The involvement of American philanthropic organizations in dealing with the needy countries of Eastern Europe has become possible due to a number of factors. The following of them are the departure from the policy of isolationism, the rapid increase in the US labor productivity, the crisis of overproduction, the formation within the American society of a humanists and philanthropists layer, mainly among the richest and the most influential entrepreneurs (Andrew Carnegie, John Rockefeller, Jacob Schiff, Herbert Hoover, etc.), who, having earned enormous wealth, created non-governmental charitable foundations with the aim of financing the philanthropic projects. Thus the activity of Herbert Hoover American humanitarian organization (the American Relief Administration (ARA)) which was started in 1919 in the US changed the general economic and social situation. Its main purpose was to provide food for Polish children needs. ARA launched a whole network of dining-rooms throughout Poland.

Key words: American Relief Administration, ARA, Joint, Poland, humanitarian aid, famine, humanitarian organizations.

Submitted: 21.10.2021

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