Nataliya Shevchenko,

Ph.D. (History), Associate Professor,

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine


Nazar Machynsky,

Master’s Student,

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine


DOI: https://doi.org/10.17721/2524-048X.2023.24.9


Abstract. The article analyzes the evolution of relationships between the United Kingdom and Spain in the context of the question about Gibraltar from 1873 to 1969. That is the period between Aliens’ Order in council adoption and land border closing by Spanish. The scientific novelty of the research lies in distinguishing the period of the question about Gibraltar transformation in the historical context of the relationships between the United Kingdom and Spain, its periodization, determining British and Spanish contribution to overcome the question and finding out of its influence on present day situation. The problem’s political content and the long interaction period between the two states, which was and is aimed at solving this issue, allow us to trace various critical processes that accompanied these relations. In the end of XVIII century, Spain gave up trying to return Gibraltar by military solution and Spanish society accepted its loss.  Geopolitical changes in Europe promoted the rapprochement of the United Kingdom and Spain and different contacts between their citizens in the first half of XIX century. But, in a result of Gibraltarians natiogenesis process and building a naval base in the colony – the United Kingdom started to limit Spanish-Gibraltarians civil rights. And not everyone was ready to revise their positions, many people had a historical memory of the interrelationships and rivalry between the states, to which economic factors were added, namely the powerful lag in development between Great Britain and Spain. This led to deterioration of the relationships between the United Kingdom and Spain, plenty diplomatic scandals and predicted emergencies the inquiries about returning Gibraltar peninsular back to Spain. Spain draw closer to British rivals, declared the claims on Gibraltar, raised the issue in international level, made the economic blockade and the land border closing. By the way, the United Kingdom made some concessions but could not leave Gibraltar because of its strategical status and national prestige. Value principles of the relationships between the United Kingdom and Spain are using today in the context of question about Gibraltar.

Keywords: Spain, Great Britain, Gibraltar, international relations, «Gibraltar question».


Submitted 07.12.2022



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